Climatic Design Approaches in Rural Settlements Located in "Çaldıran" and "Özalp" Districts of "Van" Province
ABSTRACT Rural settlements have been shaped by the experiences gained over many years. Buildings in rural architecture take shape in line with the social life, culture, natural and environmental data that vary from region to region. Climate characteristics, which is one of these variable elements, constitute a weighted factor that guides the planning process. Especially, it is possible to see that traditional residences, which are the main elements of rural settlements, were built based on plans and detailing in accordance with the local climate. Defining a climate-balanced planning of local residences, as based on mentioned experiences, is important in terms of preserving the architectural features of original buildings and ensuring the sustainability of the local texture. In this study, it was aimed to analyze the role of climatic characteristics, which is an important factor in shaping the rural architecture of Van, and to determine the physical properties of rural houses. Defining these qualities will provide important data by expressing the settlement character caused by local differences and will contribute to guide the new settlements. In this study, rural settlements in “Çaldıran” and “Özalp” districts of Van province where cold climate prevails have been examined. Salahane village, Alikelle village and Yavuzlar village of these districts have been determined as the study areas because they reflect the local architectural character. Care has been taken to ensure that the residential buildings selected from these villages have the characteristics reflecting local data. The climatic design approaches of the houses have been evaluated with parameters such as planning features, building location, building spacing, orientation, building form, space organization and material. It has been observed that the traditional houses in the selected settlements were planned in a balanced manner with the climate and the negative effects of the cold climate have been reduced with these planning features.