Physico-Chemico-Mechanico-Petrographic Characteristic and SEM-EDX Analysis of Conservative Materials in the Süleymaniye Complex- Examples of Tabhane and Darüşşifa Building
ABSTRACT This study focuses on historical construction materials, such as mortar, stucco, clay brick, and fine aggregate, in the Tabhane and Darüşşifa building, the Süleymaniye complex. Aim of this research is to examine chemical, petrographic, physical, mechanical, and SEM-EDX (Scaning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyser) characteristic of historical construction materials in the Süleymaniye Mosque. This study uses historical mortar, stucco, fine aggregate, and brick samples in order to compare their characteristics each other. Tested chemical properties are clor (Cl-1) content, sulfat content (SO4), carbonat content (CO3), nitrat oxide (NO3) content, soluble salt content, analyse of protein, analyse of oil, loss on ignition, acid treatment, and conductivity on the whole historical construction materials as the spot tests. The polarizing microscope and stereo microscope observes the petrographic analysises of mortar, stucco, and aggregate. The SEM-EDX analysis is performed on historical stucco samples. Moreover, the physical and mechanical tests, such as granulometry, water absorption, density and compressive strength, are carried out on fine aggregate and historical clay brick. In the light of Tabhane and Darüşşifa building material spot result, the historical construction material samples contain hydraulic lime binder which is dosage between 25-40%, clor (Cl-1) content, sulfat content (SO4), carbonat content (CO3), nitrat oxide (NO3) content, and soluble salt content at minor level, protein as egg white content, brick dust and quars as pozzolanic additive, which is used in the mixing, and no oil in mortar and stucco samples. SEM-EDX analysis indicates that the stucco samples have trace elements of aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, oxygen, and iron as well as sodium and magnesium element. Compressive strength average of the burned clay brick is 16,3 (MPa). As concluded in the study, the Süleymaniye complex has got proper conservative material quality and technique of design and architectural knowledge applied during building and restoration period.